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Recommended Reading

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The Ancient Egyptian
Pyramid Texts
- James P. Allen

Manuel de Codage System:

The traditional transliteration of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs uses letters that cannot be easily typed used an ASCII keyboard, so an alternative transliteration code needed to be developed to enable scholars to use computers to aid them in their study of the language. The Manuel de Codage was developed in the early 80s as a means to overcome this problem.

However, there is some variation to the Manuel de Codage system. These variations mainly concern the hieroglyphs M17 (the reed), M17 (the double reed) and O34 (the door bolt).

For example, the single reed is transliterated by some as 'i', while others transliterate it as 'j'. The double reed is sometimes tranasliterated as 'ii', 'y', or 'jj'.

The hieroglyph described as depicting a door bolt, to give another eample, is transliterated by some as 's', and by others as 'z'.

The chart picture below shows the 'flavour' of the MdC used in the study section of this website.

MdC Chart